Causality (also referred to as causation) is the relationship between an event (the cause) and a second event, where the second event is understood as a consequence of the first. In common usage, causality is also the relationship between a set of factors (causes) and a phenomenon. Anything that affects an effect is a factor of that effect. A direct factor is a factor that affects an effect directly, that is, without any intervening factors.
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Air pollution could be a leading cause in a societal reduction in intelligence levels, according to new research. A study ...