Amnesia (from greek ἀμνησία "a" meaning "without", "μνησία" memory) is a deficit in memory caused by brain damage, disease, or psychological trauma. amnesia can also be caused temporarily by the use of various sedatives and hypnotic drugs. essentially, amnesia is a partial or total loss of memory. the memory can be either wholly or partially lost due to the extent of damage that was caused. there are two main types of amnesia: retrograde amnesia and anterograde amnesia.