Today at its Inside Search event in San Francisco, Google has announced Instant Pages, a feature that delivers results for searches instantaneously. In the demonstration, Google showed that a search result could take 3-5 seconds to appear on a local machine, but with Instant Pages the result is delivered immediately.
Notice the counter at the bottom of the screenshot showing the time-to-load. Google is able to perform this seemingly instant delivery by pre-caching the pages while you peruse the search results from your query. The pages that are cached are chosen by an algorithm that predicts the results of the search that you are most likely to choose, enabling Google to cache only the most likely candidates.
Instant search will be available soon in Chrome Beta and is available in the developer version of Chrome today. Google will be launching a mobile version as well.